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Updated to MEPC 66 (April 2014)
Title: Ballast Water Management 5th Edition
Subtitle: Understanding the regulations and the treatment technologies available
Publisher: Witherby Seamanship International Ltd
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-661-4 (9781856096614), ISBN 10: 1-85609-661-0 (1856096610)
Published Date: August 2014
Number of Pages: 206
Weight: 1.20 kg
Author: Nadeem Anwar
Every day, on every ship at sea, millions of marine organisms are transported having been taken onboard when ballast water is loaded. The World Wildlife Fund has estimated that, every hour, about 7.5 M litres of ballast water is released into US waters alone, and 10 Bn litres of ballast water a year is transferred round the world.In February 2004, the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments was adopted. This 5th Edition of the WPG Guide to Ballast Water Management provides an up to date guide to the treatment options available and details all systems with either Basic or Final approval from IMO or with Type Approval from a certifying body.
Understanding the issues with Ballast Water Treatment systems today, can be summed up as:
Shipowners face a difficult process in choosing a Ballast Water Treatment system, as there are no clear guidelines about which system operates best for their needs
The global market for ballast water treatment systems will be worth hundreds of millions of dollars, running easily into billions of dollars over the next few years (do the maths on 47,000 ships over 500 gt!), shipowners need to make sure that they understand the systems they are purchasing
There are many emerging ballast water treatment technologies that have recently received, or will soon receive, type approval certificates
Many vessels will require retrofitting in the near future - will it be the case that those owners that wait too long will be caught in a seller’s market?
We now have Standard D1, which includes sequential mid-ocean de-ballasting and re-ballasting or flow-through ballasting, but these two methods are, at best, estimated to be only 90% effective. Ballast pumps run for 3-4 days at a time lead to increased fuel consumption, wear and tear on equipment and increased air emissions. The nature of ballast water exchange can result in increased hull stresses and stability problems and there will always be clingage and sediment in the ballast tanks
The next stage, depending on the size of ship, will be when Standard D2 comes into force, which will require the treatment of ballast water typically in systems using a combination of filters, hydrocylones, cavitation, centrifuges, chemicals, UV radiation and deoxygenation with inert gas, ozone, hydrogen peroxide etc.
PART ONE – Introduction & Background
Historical occurrences of nonindigenous marine species being transported in ships’ ballast water.
1 The Issue in Recent Years
2 The Ship as a Carrier
2.1 Aquatic Species
2.3 Age of Ballast.
3 Ballast Water Exchange – The First Measure to Reduce the Transfer of Invasive Aquatic Species.
3.1 Ballast Water Exchange Operational Considerations
3.1.1 Geographic Location Requirements.
3.1.2 Exchange Zones
3.1.4 Time Required
3.1.6 Need for Exchange
3.1.7 Safety Implications.
3.2 Sequential Exchange Method.
3.3 Flow Through Exchange Method
3.4 Natural Ballast Water Exchange Method.
3.5 BWM Options Summary
3.6 Ballast Operations Checklists.
3.7 No Ballast Onboard (NOBOB) Ships
3.8 The Ballastless Ship
3.8.1 The Variable Buoyancy Ship.
3.8.2 The Non Ballast Water Ship.
3.9 Permissible BWM Methods
PART TWO – Regulations
4 The Ballast Water Management Convention
4.1 Legislation from the International Maritime Organization.
4.1.1 Application of the BWM Convention
4.1.2 The IMO Approval Process.
5 Legislation from the United States.
5.1 The US Coast Guard
5.1.1 USCG Proposed Standards for Concentration of Living Organisms in Ballast Water
5.1.2 Approval of Ballast Water Management Systems.
5.1.3 The STEP Program.
5.1.4 ETV (Environmental Technology Verification) Program.
5.2 State Legislation.
5.2.1 US State Requirements.
6 Other Existing National or Local Ballast Water Management Legislation.
7 The Port State Authority
8 Ballast Water Administration
8.1 Management Plans
8.1.2 Ship Particulars
8.1.5 Plans/Drawings and Description of the Ballast System.
8.1.6 Additional Details.
8.1.7 Safety Procedures for the Ship and the Crew.
8.1.8 Duties of the Ballast Water Management Officer
8.2 Ballast Water Record Book
8.3.1 Initial Survey
8.3.2 Intermediate Survey
8.3.3 Annual Survey
8.3.4 Renewal Survey
8.5 Port State Control (PSC)
8.5.1 Existing Conditions
8.5.3 Enforcement and Monitoring.
8.5.4 Examination of Onboard Documentation.
8.5.6 Sampling and Actions
8.5.7 Enforcement Action .
8.6 Ballast Water Reporting.
8.6.1 Online Reports.
8.6.2 Fax Reports.
8.6.3 Postal/Mail-in Reports
8.7.1 Support Level
8.7.2 Operational Level.
8.7.3 Management Level.
PART THREE – Guidance.
9 Guidance on Ballasting.
10 Deposit and Exchange Facilities
10.1 Reception Facilities.
10.1.1 Ballast Water Reception Facility
10.1.2 Sediment Reception Facility
PART FOUR – Treatment Systems & Operation
12 Introduction to Treatment Technologies
12.1 Ballast Water Treatment System Requirements
13 Treatment Technologies – Physical Separation, Thermal, Ultraviolet and Plasma.
13.1 Physical Separation.
13.1.1 The Hydrocyclone
13.1.2 Limitations and Advantages of Hydrocyclones
13.1.3 FineBallast MF BWMS
13.2 Heat Treatment Technology
13.2.1 Limitations and Advantages of Heat Treatment Technology.
13.3 Ultraviolet Radiation/Advanced Oxidation Technology.
13.3.1 Limitations and Advantages of UV Radiation Technology
13.3.2 Hyde Guardian™ Ballast Water Treatment System.
13.3.3 PureBallast Ballast Water Treatment System.
13.3.4 Optimarin Ballast Water Treatment System
13.4 Plasma Technology.
13.4.1 ARA Ballast BWMS
14 Treatment Technologies – Cavitation, Deoxygenation, Magnetic and Ultrasonic
14.1 Cavitation/Shear Force Technology
14.1.1 FineBallast OZ (previously known as SP Hybrid BWMS Ozone Version).
14.1.2 Unitor Ballast Water Management System.
14.2 Deoxygenation/Supersaturation Technology.
14.2.1 Limitations and Advantages of Deoxygenation Technology.
14.2.2 Pressure Swing Adsorption.
14.2.3 Membrane Technology.
14.2.4 OceanSaver Ballast Water Management System
14.2.5 Venturi Oxygen Stripping (VOS) BWMS.
14.2.6 Coldharbour BWTS.
14.3 Magnetic/Electric Fields Technology.
14.3.1 ClearBallast Ballast Water Purification System
14.4 Ultrasonic Technology.
14.4.1 OceanGuard Ballast Water Management System
14.4.2 AquaTriComb Ballast Water Management System.
14.4.3 BSKY™ Ballast Water Management System
15 Treatment Technologies – Chemical, Biocide and Electrochemical
15.1 Chemical and Biocide Technology
15.1.1 Limitations and Advantages of Chemical and Biocide Technology.
15.1.2 Types of Biocide
15.1.3 Sodium Hypochlorite (NaClO)
15.1.4 Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2).
15.1.5 Ozone (O3).
15.1.9 Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2).
15.2 Electrochemical Technology.
15.2.1 BalPure® Ballast Water Treatment System
15.2.2 Electro-Cleen™ Ballast Water Management System.
15.2.3 AQUARIUS™-EC Ballast Water Treatment System.
15.2.4 CleanBallast Ballast Water Treatment System
16 Other Components Manufacturers use in the Assembly of Ballast Water Treatment Systems.
16.1 The Boll Automatic Filter
16.2 The Hayward Self-Cleaning Strainer.
16.3 The Disc-Type Depth Filter.
16.3.1 DiskFilter System.
17 Ballast Water Monitoring.
17.1 Monitoring Capability.
17.2 Arrival Ballast Conditions.
17.3 Monitoring Stages.
17.3.1 Stage 1
17.3.2 Stage 2
17.3.3 Stage 3
17.4 Post Treatment Monitoring.
17.5.1 Sampling Issues.
17.5.2 Protective Equipment.
17.7 Test Methods
17.7.1 Colourimetric Test.
17.7.4 Flow Cytometry .
17.8 Monitoring that Requires Tank Entry
17.9 Practical Considerations for Compliance with the D-2 Standards
18 Technical Issues & Benefits.
19 Systems & Layouts.
19.1 AQUARIUS™-EC Ballast Water Treatment System.
19.2 AQUARIUS™-UV Ballast Water Treatment System.
19.3 AquaStar™ Ballast Water Management System.
19.4 AquaTriComb™ (ATC) Ballast Water Treatment System.
19.5 ARA Ballast (previously named ‘Blue Ocean Guardian’ (BOG) for basic approval).
19.6 BalClor™ Ballast Water Management System (previously called ‘Sunrui BWMS’ during
the basic approval process).
19.7 BallastAce Ballast Water Treatment System
19.8 BallastMaster Ballast Water Management System
19.9 BALPURE® Ballast Water Treatment System
19.10 Blue Ocean Shield Ballast Water Management System
19.11 BlueSeas Ballast Water Management System
19.12 BlueWorld Ballast Water Management System .
19.13 BSKY™ Ballast Water Management System.
19.14 CleanBallast® Ballast Water Treatment System
19.15 ClearBallast Ballast Water Purification System
19.16 Coldharbour Ballast Water Treatment System
19.17 CrystalBallast® Ballast Water Treatment System
19.18 DESMI Ocean Guard Ballast Water Treatment System.
19.19 EcoBallast Ballast Water Treatment System
19.20 Ecochlor® Ballast Water Treatment System.
19.21 Electro-Cleen™ System (ECS)
19.22 En-Ballast™ Ballast Water Management System.
19.23 ERMA FIRST Ballast Water Management System
19.24 FineBallast MF Ballast Water Management System .
19.25 FineBallast® OZ Ballast Water Management System (previously known as the Special
Pipe Hybrid BWMS combined with Ozone treatment version).
19.26 GloEn-Patrol™ Ballast Water Management System.
19.27 HiBallast™ Ballast Water Management System.
19.28 Hyde GUARDIAN™ Ballast Water Treatment System.
19.29 MICROFADE Ballast Water Management System
19.30 Neo-Purimar™ Ballast Water Management System
19.31 NK-03 BlueBallast System
19.32 OceanGuard™ Ballast Water Management System
19.33 OceanSaver® Ballast Water Treatment System (OS BWTS).
19.34 OPS (Ocean Protection System) Ballast Water Treatment System
19.35 Optimarin Ballast System.
19.36 PureBallast Ballast Water Treatment System.
19.37 Purimar™ Ballast Water Management System.
19.38 SEI-Ballast Water Treatment System.
19.39 SiCURE™ Ballast Water Management System
19.40 SKY-SYSTEM® Ballast Water Management System.
19.41 ‘Smart Ballast’ Ballast Water Treatment System.
19.42 Unitor Ballast Water Treatment System.
19.43 Venturi Oxygen Stripping™ (VOS) Ballast Water Management System.
19.44 Wärtsilä 500i Ballast Water Treatment System.
20 Status of Systems – Basic/Final Approval at the IMO and those Type Approved (as at February 2011).
1 Key Invasive Species
1.1 The European Green Crab (Carcinus maenas)
1.2 Asian Kelp (Undaria pinnatifida) also known as Wakame.
1.3 Fishhook Water Flea (Cercopagis pengoi)
1.4 Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) also known as the Shanghai Hairy Crab.
1.5 Northern Pacific Sea Star (Asterias amurensis) also known as the Flatbottom Sea Star.
1.6 Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha).
1.7 Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus).
1.8 North American Comb Jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi).
1.9 Toxic Algae (Producing Harmful Algal Blooms) Various Species
2 Cholera (Vibrio cholerae) (various strains)