An Illustrated Guide to Electrical Safety, 6th Edition, 2011, Michael Kovacic and John Grzywacz, Editors, ASSE; ISBN 978-1-885581-59-4, Hardcover

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An Illustrated Guide to Electrical Safety, 6th Edition, 2011, Michael Kovacic and John Grzywacz, Editors, ASSE; ISBN 978-1-885581-59-4, Hardcover



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Editors Michael Kovacic and John Grzywacz

Hardcover: 265 pages

Publisher: American Society of Safety Engineers; Sixth edition (December 15, 2011)

Language: English

ISBN-10: 1885581599

ISBN-13: 978-1885581594

Order #4432


The sixth edition of An Illustrated Guide to Electrical Safety provides all the text and changes to 29 CFR 1910 Subpart S implemented by OSHA in 2007, including a new, easy-to-use, cross-reference to find new and renumbered sections. These changes have been documented and commented on to synchronize the requirements of OSHA to the 2011 National Electrical Code, as well as coordinating 29 CFR 1926 Subpart K requirements for construction. While OSHA did not revise the Safety-Related Work Practices section of Subpart S, the Illustrated Guide harmonizes the OSHA requirements with latest NFPA 70E – Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, 2012 Edition.


Over 130 illustrations are used to explain the revised OSHA requirements, and the updated analysis provides the reader with insights into how to implement OSHA requirements for a safer workplace, and even the history of some requirements. ISBN 978-1-885581-59-4.


 About the Editors


Michael O. Kovacic is a full-time Electrical Safety Specialist and President of TMK and Associates, Inc., a Cleveland, Ohio based organization specializing in electrical safety and lockout/tagout. Mr. Kovacic has over 15 years of experience in the electrical safety industry. He has participated in or managed teams for safety audits at over 150 industrial facilities for major corporations and government organizations. He has participated in flash hazard analysis for numerous facilities as well. He has also reviewed and revised electrical safety programs for major U.S. corporations and government entities. His background also includes accident investigation.
John Grzywacz is an instructor for TMK Associates, Inc. on NFPA 70E and 79 compliance, safety assessments and OSHA reporting requirements, flash hazard analysis services, safety program creation and review, and accident investigation. Previously, Mr. Grzywacz was with OSHA for over 20 years, first as the OSHA Region II (NYC) Training Director and later as a faculty member at the OSHA National Training Institute, Des Plaines, IL. He is a two-time recipient of the Department of Labor's Exceptional Achievement Award, and is a member of ASTM's F-18 Committee on electrical protective equipment for workers.




List of Figures 

List of Tables 




Subpart S, Electrical - General 

Part 1 - Design Safety Standards for Electrical Systems 

1910.301 Introduction 1 

1910.302 Electrical Utilization Systems 2 

1910.303 General Requirements 8 

1910.304 Wiring Design and Protection 40 

1910.305 Wiring Methods, Components, and Equipment for General Use 93 

1910.306 Special-Purpose Equipment and Installations 126 

1910.307 Hazardous (Classified) Locations 149 

1910.308 Special Systems 180 Part 2 - Electrical Safety-Related Work Practices 

1910.331 Electrical Safety-Related Work Practices 195 

1910.332 Training 198 

1910.333 Selection and Use of Work Practices 201 

1910.334 Use of Equipment 214 

1910.335 Safeguards for Personnel Protection 217 

1910.399 Definitions Applicable to This Subpart 232 

1910, Appendix A to Subpart S - Referenced Standards 243

Appendix B - Subpart S Old to New Cross Reference 245 

Appendix C - NEMA Plug Configurations 260 

Appendix D - Commentary Submissions on Grounding 263


List of Figures

Figure 1 An example of a utility substation covered under 1910.269 3 

Figure 2 Symbols of common Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories (NRTLs) 8 

Figure 3 Example of the interrupting rating marked on an overcurrent device 11 

Figure 4 NEMA Enclosure Specifications for Indoor Nonhazardous Locations 12 

Figure 5 NEMA Enclosure Specifications for Outdoor Nonhazardous Locations 13 

Figure 6 Example of equipment affected by deteriorating agents 14 

Figure 7 ANSI/NECA 1-2006, Standard Practice for Good Workmanship in Electrical  Contracting 15 

Figure 8 Example of one type of knockout plug 15 

Figure 9 Unused opening in a disconnect switch 15 

Figure 10 Example of corrosive chemical residue 16 

Figure 11 Note the damaged handle on this disconnect switch 16 

Figure 12 Example of electrical equipment not firmly secured 17 

Figure 13 Example of electrical equipment not firmly secured 17

Figure 14 Even with ventilation openings clear, equipment may not be able to dissipate  heat properly 18 

Figure 15 Example of lack of maintenance leading to inadequate ventilation of electrical  equipment 18 

Figure 16 None of these connections are identified for multiple wire termination 19 

Figure 17 Sample mechanical splicing devices 20 

Figure 18 Conductors mechanically joined and soldered 21 

Figure 19 Insulating a splice with electrical tape 22 

Figure 20 Generator nameplate 22 

Figure 21 Each disconnect and circuit requires identification 23 

Figure 22 Actual picture of disconnect switches 24 

Figure 23 Disconnect switch located on machine 24 

Figure 24 Requirements for entrance and egress from working space 27 

Figure 25 Condition (A)-Live parts on one side and no live or grounded parts on the  other side 28 

Figure 26 Condition (B)-Exposed live parts on one side and grounded parts on the  other side 29 

Figure 27 Condition (C)-Exposed live unguarded parts on both sides 31 

Figure 28 Example of warning sign for unqualified persons 33 

Figure 29 An outdoor substation preventing entrance by a locked fence 34 

Figure 30 Requirements for entrance and egress from workspace 36

Figure 31 Working spaces behing electrical equipment 38 

Figure 32 Distribution panelboard 41 

Figure 33A Correct wiring of duplex receptacles 42 

Figure 33B Incorrect wiring of duplex receptacles 43 

Figure 33C Incorrect wiring of duplex receptacles 44 

Figure 33D Incorrect wiring of duplex receptacles 44 

Figure 34 Duplex receptacle correctly wired for designated terminals 45 

Figure 35A Example of portable GFCI device 47 

Figure 35B HD-Pro 480V portable GFCI by TRC 47 

Figure 36 Open conductors installed on insulators on the surface of a building 50 

Figure 37 Minimum climbing spaces for power conductors located over  communication conductors 51 

Figure 38 Required clearance between a roof and outside branch circuits, feeders,  and service 53 

Figure 39 Minimum distance of 3 feet from sloping roof to overhead wires 53 

Figure 40A Minimum clearance from roof to wires over slope roof overhang 54 

Figure 40B Minimum clearance from roof to wires over flat roof overhang 55 

Figure 41 Three acceptable arrangements for service-entrance disconnecting means 56 

Figure 42 Common types of fuses: socket type (top) and cartridge 58 Figure 43 Cutaway view of a circuit breaker 59 

Figure 44 Disconnects for overcurrent devices 60 

Figure 45 SWD & HID markings on typical circuit breaker 61 

Figure 46-1A No current flows unless there is a complete loop 63 

Figure 46-1B If the loop (circuit) is not complete no electrons can return 63 

Figure 46-1C Friction (resistance) inside of a conductor produces heat 63 

Figure 46-1D A well-designed system has minimum resistance 63 

Figure 46-2A When current flows through a conductor, a magnetic field is forced outside of  the conductor 64 

Figure 46-2B In a conventional circuit, the current flowing in the returning line produces  a field 64 

Figure 46-2C If the outgoing and returning conductors of a circuit (loop) are close together,  the two magnetic fields cancel each other 64 

Figure 46-3 Grounding (bonding) conductors must be carried with the supply conductors 65 

Figure 46-4 Ground impedance must be low 67 

Figure 46-5A The equipment grounding conductor protects against hazards of voltage between enclosures 69 

Figure 46-5B The grounding-electrode conductor protects against hazards of voltage between  enclosures and their surroundings 

Figure 46-6A A grounded system has an intentional connection from a current-carrying  conductor to the equipment grounding conductor and to the grounding  electrode 69 

Figure 46-6B An ungrounded system has no main bonding jumper, but the equipment  grounding conductors are required exactly as in the grounded system 69 

Figure 46-7A In a grounded system each fault clears immediately, over a predictable path to  the source 69 

Figure 46-7B In an ungrounded system fault current flows between faults over unpredictable  paths 69 

Figure 46-8 System and equipment grounding 70 

Figure 47 250-volt, three-wire DC system. The neutral conductor is grounded at the source 71 

Figure 48 Grounded 2-wire DC system supplying an electroplating operation 72 

Figure 49 AC circuits under 50 volts requiring grounding 73 

Figure 50 Typical connections for a GROUNDED 3-phase, 4-wire, service supplied system 78 

Figure 51 Typical connections for a UNGROUNDED 3-phase, 3-wire, service supplied  system 79 

Figure 52 Simplified diagram of a GROUNDED system 80 

Figure 53 Simplified diagram of an UNGROUNDED system 80 

Figure 54 Cord- and plug-connected equipment without a grounding conductor 83 

Figure 55 Cord- and plug-connected equipment with a grounding conductor 84 

Figure 56 Grounding methods for fixed equipment using a separate conductor or metal  enclosures as the equipment grounding conductor 86 

Figure 57 Grounding method for fixed equipment using circuit conductor enclosures as  equipment grounding conductor 86 

Figure 58 Motor suitably grounded by its attachment to grounded structure 87 

Figure 59 Equipment considered effectively grounded 88 

Figure 60 Derived neutral for an ungrounded delta-connected system showing the neutral  grounded through an impedance 89 

Figure 61 Non-current-carrying metal parts connected 89 

Figure 62 Ground fault detection and relaying 90 

Figure 63 Typical ground-fault indicator lights integrated into electrical equipment to  indicate a ground-fault on a 3-phase delta system 91 

Figure 64 Isolated grounding electrode 92 

Figure 65 Temporary wiring arrangement permissible for duration of construction,  remodeling, maintenance, repair, or demolition of structures 94 

Figure 66 Temporary feeders run as open conductors 96 

Figure 67 Temporary branch circuit run as open wiring on insulators 97 

Figure 68 Receptacle used for temporary wiring protected by a GFCI circuit breaker 98 

Figure 69 Earth returns 99

Figure 70 Plug connector for use with temporary circuits 100 

Figure 71 Overloaded multiple ladder-type cable trays 102 

Figure 72A Unused openings 104 

Figure 72B Various standard trade sizes of knockout covers 104 

Figure 73 Knife switches (A and B) 105 

Figure 74 Double-throw knife switches with locking device 106 

Figure 75 Typical multiconductor insulation 108 

Figure 76 Wet-location portable hand lamp with step-down transformer 111 

Figure 77 Non-dead-front attachment plug 112 

Figure 78 Receptacles and plugs with NEMA configurations 113 

Figure 79 Single outlet weatherproof cover suitable for use in wet locations 114 

Figure 80 Electric space heater with exposed heating elements guarded by a protective grill 115 

Figure 81 Example of a Motor Control Center (MCC) 116 

Figure 82 Motor disconnecting means 117 

Figure 83 Labeling required when disconnects are out of sight 118 

Figure 84 Locking controller disconnecting means 118 

Figure 85 Manually operable switch within sight 119 

Figure 86 Motor protection methods 120 

Figure 87 Unguarded commutators, collectors, and brushes housed within motor 121 

Figure 88 Typical Class 2 circuit 122 

Figure 89 Transformer for power-limited, fire-protective signaling circuit 123 

Figure 90 Examples of safeguarding methods for transformers 124 

Figure 91 Location of disconnect for gantry crane 127

Figure 92 Second disconnect not required 128 

Figure 93 Interconnected control panels 129 

Figure 94 Location of disconnect in data processing center 132 

Figure 95 Typical operation of disconnecting means 132 

Figure 96 Interlocks 133 

Figure 97 Induction heat-treating process 135 

Figure 98 The boundaries of the cell line as a single functional unit 137 

Figure 99 Isolating transformer supplying hand-held double-insulated tool for use in cell  line working zone 139 

Figure 100 NEMA configurations for 2-pole 3-wire grounding plugs and receptacles 141 

Figure 101 Distance of receptacles to permanently installed swimming pool 142 

Figure 102A Ground-fault circuit interrupter 143 

Figure 102B Receptacle-type ground-fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) 144 

Figure 103 GFCI requirement for fountains applies to ornamental fountains of this type 145 

Figure 104 Explosion occurring in general-purpose equipment 153 

Figure 105 A fluorescent hazardous-duty hand lamp for Classified Locations 155

Figure 106 Design features of a totally enclosed, fan-cooled, explosion-proof motor 156 

Figure 107 Explosion occurring in approved equipment 157 

Figure 108 Internal explosive pressure 158 

Figure 109 Threaded joint design 159 

Figure 110 Openings designed into ground joint 159 

Figure 111 Class 1, Division 1 hazardous location 163 

Figure 112 Construction of Type MI (mineral insulated) cable 164 

Figure 113 Sealing 165 Figure 114 Bonding in Class 1 hazardous (classified) locations 165 

Figure 115 Class I, Division 2 hazardous locations 168 

Figure 116 Class II hazardous locations 169 

Figure 117 Preventing dust from entering the dust-ignition-proof enclosure by sealing  between enclosures 172 

Figure 118 Preventing dust from entering the dust-ignition-proof enclosures by horizontal  distance 173 

Figure 119 Preventing dust from entering the dust-ignition-proof enclosure by vertical  distance 173 

Figure 120 Totally enclosed pipe-ventilated motor 174 

Figure 121 Bonding in Class II hazardous (classified) locations 174 

Figure 122 Class III hazardous locations 176 

Figure 123 Improperly supported cable and properly supported cable 180 

Figure 124 Isolating switches 182 Figure 125 Normal and emergency lighting circuits where permitted in a common junction  box 183 

Figure 126 Example of a Class 1 power-limited circuit 185 

Figure 127 Example of a Class 1 remote control circuit 185 

Figure 128 Thermostat control circuit, Class 2 186 

Figure 129 Well-laid-out fire control panel has barriers to minimize wiring errors 189 

Figure 130 Identification of fire protective signaling circuits 190 

Figure 131 Protection of communication system from accidental contact with power  conductors 191 

Figure 132A Group lockout/tagout of electrical disconnecting means 204 

Figure 132B Cable lockout device for several electrical disconnects 204 

Figure 132C Lockout procedures affixed to a pump motor 205

Figure 133 Example of danger tape used to establish work zone to restrict approach by  unqualified persons 209 

Figure 134 Metallic crane booms may come in contact with overhead lines 212 

Figure 135 Example of Rubber Insulating Glove Label 218

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